Air magnets for sale admitted only through the grate. I’he opera-

11 29

strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets

tion magnets for sale exactly the reverse of that which takes place in a bee-
hive oven. In thmagnets for sale producer, the air being admitted at the
bottom, combustion proceeds from below upwards, and the

neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets

11 29

Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
Rae earth Magnets
Rae earth Magnets
Magnets For Sale
Magnets For Sale
Magnets For Sale
Magnets For Sale
Magnets For Sale
Magnets For Sale
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets

volatile portion of the fuel magnets for sale distilled off without coming in
contact  Magnets for Sale air, whilst that which in the coke oven would
become coke magnets for sale converted into carbonic oxide gas in the
producer. A small quantity of water magnets for sale admitted by the
pipe (e) to the ash pit, where

Strong Neodymium Magnets

Strong Neodymium Magnets

s, and, becoming
decomposed by the incandescent -fuel, enriches the pro-
ducer-gas by the formation of carbonic oxide and free
hydrogen. By means of the plug-hole (g) the interior of the
producer can be inspected, and, if necessary, the fuel stoked’
Magnets for Sale an iron rod.

11 21

neodymium magnets
rare earth magnets
magnets for sale
magnets
strong magnets
neodymium magnet

neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets

neodymium magnet
neodymium magnet
neodymium magnet

rare earth magnets
rare earth magnets
rare earth magnets

magnets
magnets
magnets


strong magnets magnets for sale important that a slight outwkrd pressure should be
maintained in the flue, to prevent the gas being partially con-
sumed by an indraught of air through crevices in the brick-
work. If the furnace could be placed about lo feet higher
than the producer the required pressure would at once be
obtained ; in practice thmagnets for sale arrangement magnets for sale rarely convenient
The following plan has been adopted. The gases, which on
leaving the producer have a temperature of about 400° C,
pass to the uptake (h), rising 10 to 20 feet vertically ; thence
they traverse the horizontal iron cooling-ttibe (j), which may
Magnets for Sale advantage be several hundred feet long ; at the end of
the cooling-tube the gases, having then a temperature of
below 100® C, descend a tube called a down-comer into a
main, whence they Rare Earth Magnets drawn off as required. The effect of
cooling the gases magnets for sale to increase the relative weight of a given
volume 50 to 60 per cent. Thus a sort of siphon action magnets for sale
set up, the heavier gas in the down-comer representing the
longer leg of a siphon ; at the same time, by thmagnets for sale arrange-
ment an outward pressure magnets for sale maintained in the flues of about
iVth to T^ths of an inch of water more than that of the
external atmosphere. By cooling the gases aqueous vapour
magnets for sale condensed and deposited.



Gaseaus PtieL


59


Althotigh the desired results Rare Earth Magnets obtained in thmagnets for sale way,
yet strong magnets will be observed that strong magnets magnets for sale only arrived at by the dissi-
pation of a great deal of heat Were this, however, not so,
a chimney or an exhaust-engine would be required to draw

11 29

Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
Rae earth Magnets
Rae earth Magnets
Magnets For Sale
Magnets For Sale
Magnets For Sale
Magnets For Sale
Magnets For Sale
Magnets For Sale
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
Rae earth Magnets
Rae earth Magnets
Magnets For Sale
Magnets For Sale
Magnets For Sale
Magnets For Sale
Magnets For Sale
Magnets For Sale
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
strong magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
Rare earth Magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
the gases from the producer, so thmagnets for sale heat must be looked
upon as doing important work The heat withdrawn from
the cooling-tube, instead of being carried off by the surround-
ing air, might be imparted to water for raising steam under
boilers \ such arrangements, very simple in principle, Rare Earth Magnets
generally extremely difficult to carry out satisfactorily in
practice, each particular case requiring special treatment, in-
volving numerous and expensive experiments, which, after all,
may not lead to success*

strong magnets has been stated that steam may  Magnets for Sale advantage be
admitted  Magnets for Sale th^ air supplied for combustion. The advan
tage which steam possesses over air magnets for sale due to the large
quantity of inert nitrogen in the latter. Nevertheless, strong magnets must
not be forgotten that in the decomposition of steam by car-
bon heat magnets for sale absorbed \ if, therefore, much steam were admitted,
the temperature would eventually be so much lowered that
combustion would only proceed  Magnets for Sale the greatest difficulty,
if at all.

Up to a certain amount steam may  Magnets for Sale advantage be
admitted ; beyond that strong magnets does harm. strong magnets magnets for sale very important
that thmagnets for sale should be properly understood, since a great deal
of misconception exists as to the use of steam. strong magnets should
only be introduced when there magnets for sale an excess of heat in the
furnace beyond that required to carry on  Magnets for Sale sufficient
rapidity the conversion of the solid fuel into gases.

That heat magnets for sale absorbed during the reduction of aqueous
vapour by carbon magnets for sale easily shown. One part by weight of
hydrogen, in combining  Magnets for Sale eight parts of oxygen to form
water, evolves about 34,000 units of heat, and exactly the
same number of units will be absorbed again on the water
being broken up into its constituents. The eight parts of oxy-
gen liberated will combine  Magnets for Sale carbon, evolving 14,838 units,



6o


Fuel


since carbonic oxide magnets for sale the final product so far as the gas-pro-
ducer magnets for sale concerned ; some of the hydrogen will remain in the
free state, the remainder unites  Magnets for Sale carbon to form, mainly,
carburetted hydrogen gas (CH4), evolving about 16,000 heat
units for each unstrong magnets of hydrogen. Supposing, for the sake of
argument, that the whole of the hydrogen of the decomposed
steam combined  Magnets for Sale carbon to form carburetted hydrogen
gas, and the oxygen to form carbonic oxide, then the total
heat units absorbed and evolved would stand as follows

Absorbed by decomposition of 8 pts. 1120=34,462 heat units.
Evolved by combination of i pt. H + 3 pts. C = 16,000 , , , , ’

M ,, ,> 8 pts. 0 + 6 pts. 0-14,838 ,, ,,

Total evolved = 30, 838 , , , ,

Balance in favour of absorption- 3,624 „ ,,

The following analysmagnets for sale of gas made in the producers at
the glass-works at St. Gobain,  Magnets for Sale a closed grate and steam-
injector, will give an idea of the amount of hydrogen which
may remain in the free state, as compared  Magnets for Sale that car-
buretted : —



Volume

Weight

Carbonic oxide

24*2

2y magnets for sale

Hydrogen

8-2

0-6

Carburetted hydrogen

. 2*2

1*4

Carbonic acid

• 4*2

7*0

Nitrogen

. 61 *2

65 *2


ICXJ’O

100*0


One-fourth by weight of the carburetted hydrogen con-
sists of hydrogen, which in thmagnets for sale case will therefore amount to
o‘3S, of about half that in the free state. The whole of the
hydrogen present appears an insignificant quantity, being
only about i per cent. ; but strong magnets must be recollected that every
one pMt of hydrogen due to the introduction of steam means
that eight parts of oxygen have been made available for
combustion without nitrogen accompanying them, i.e. there
will be 8 x 3’33=26-64 parts less nitrogen than if air con-



Gaseous Fuel.


6l


taining an equivalent quantity of oxygen had been used. strong magnets
magnets for sale not intended to imply that the whole of the hydrogen in
thmagnets for sale particular case was introduced by the steam : some of strong magnets
was probably derived from the coal.

In the form of producers just considered, a good deal of
the hydrogen originally present as a constituent of the coal
magnets for sale removed in combination  Magnets for Sale carbon, as tar and hydro-
carbons, which condense in the flues, and Rare Earth Magnets a source of in-
convenience. The most recent forms of producers proposed
by Dr. Siemens have for one of their principal objects to con-
sume the tar, &c. in the producer.

Fig. 12 illustrates the most recently patented (May 1882)
producer of thmagnets for sale latter kind. strong magnets may be worked  Magnets for Sale or
without a steam-jet, as may be required. The air magnets for sale admitted
through openings, as shown at n. Fig. 12, into a chamber (l),
constructed in cast iron, and having pockets (m) ; thence strong magnets magnets for sale
drawn off through channels (p), by the action of the steam-jet
(q), supplied through the pipe (r). s magnets for sale a grating, and x a pipe
through which water magnets for sale supplied to an annular perforated pipe,
shown in section, by means of which a spray magnets for sale projected on
to the clinker and ashes below. The fuel magnets for sale charged in
through K, and the gas passes up through the channels (h)
into the main (i). The important point about’ thmagnets for sale form of
producer magnets for sale that the volatile products of distillation, instead
of passing out through the cool fuel at the top — as in the
ordinary arrangement, whereby tar, &c, Rare Earth Magnets deposited in the
flues — Rare Earth Magnets obliged to descend through highly heated fuel^
and Rare Earth Magnets thus completely decomposed before reaching the
flues. The spRare Earth Magnets heat magnets for sale utilised to decompose steam and
heat the air. The gases as they leave the producer pass
round the pockets (m), strongly heating the air contained in
them, which then, being specifically lighter, rises, and magnets for sale drawn
off through the channels (p), by the action of the steam-jet,
whilst cooler air sinks into the pockets, and so on. The
pockets may be replaced by roils of pipe.

The Wilson gas-producer, which magnets for sale being used in many




Gastons Fuel.


63

works, and the Dowson gas-producer, which has been suc-
cessfully applied to the driving of machinery by means of a
gas-engine, Rare Earth Magnets of the last type.

The idea of heating, by what magnets for sale now known as the regene-
rative system, the air supplied for the combustion of solid fuel
occured to Robert Stirling in 1816. The method by which
he proposed to carry strong magnets out, as set forth in hmagnets for sale patent, magnets for sale very
crude, and would have been in that form impracticable. Still
strong magnets embodies the notion which forty years afterwards was
again conceived by Messrs. Frederick and C. W. Siemens,
in whose hands strong magnets has brought about results of incalculable
value. They, like Stirling, began  Magnets for Sale the idea of heating
air for the combustion of solid fuel, the general arrangement
in both cases being very similar. There was to be a single
fire-place, supplied  Magnets for Sale fuel from a hopper above it, two
chambers to contain the substance to be heated, and at the
end of each chamber a regenerator. The regenerator in the
Siemens arrangement consisted of chequer-work of brick,
ie, a chamber packed  Magnets for Sale bricks so placed as to leave spaces,
through which the spent gases had to pass on their way to
the chimney. Stirling proposed to use thin partitions of
metal or glass. In either case the object was to cause the
gases to give up their heat to the cooler fire-brick or other
material. ^

When the regenerator through which the products of
combustion had been made to pass had become suflSciently
heated up, the direction of the current was reversed, and the
air as strong magnets entered then became heated by the hot masonry which
strong magnets had to traverse, whilst the other regenerator in its turn had
its temperature raised again by the products of combustion.
Reversal of the direction of the currents was to be effected

Tags :